Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Role of Sexual Politics in Louise Mallards Possession of Self Assertion Essay Example

Role of Sexual Politics in Louise Mallards Possession of Self Assertion Paper Louise Mallard, Kate Chopping The Story Question: Discuss the role of sexual politics in Louise mallards possession of self assertion. Answer: Kate Chopin is a very famous American writer of the nineteenth century. She was an independent woman who did not confine to the socio-political bonds of the society. Chopping short story The Story of an Hour published in 1894 is about a woman who receives the news of the death of her husband and the sense of freedom that she experiences after his death. The protagonist of the story The Story of an Hour, We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Sexual Politics in Louise Mallards Possession of Self Assertion specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Sexual Politics in Louise Mallards Possession of Self Assertion specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Sexual Politics in Louise Mallards Possession of Self Assertion specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Louise Mallard is suffering from heart trouble when she gets to know that her husband has died in a rail accident. She experiences turmoil of emotions as she becomes familiar with the idea that there will not be anyone who will control her life from now. Her feelings changes from the storm of grief to the monstrous JOY that she feels as she realizes she is an independent woman from now on, and she herself would be responsible for her life and the only person she would live for now would be only herself and no one else. Lawrence l. Bereave in his essay, Fatal Self- Assertion in Kate Chopping The Story of an HOLE says that Louise is an immature, egoistic and a victim of her own self assertion. He says that the reason why Louise experiences the Joy is because she would finally be able to live for herself and have her independent identity. Since she was not suffering from a bad married life, so according to him, there is no gender politics involved in the self assertion of Louses identity. He says that the story is not about marriage or society but only about Louise Mallard and her identity crisis. The argument that Bereave gives in his essay is a title incomplete, saying that Louise was suffering only from an identity crisis would be wrong to say since the whole idea that she needs self assertion tells us that she was going through self effacement in her married life, and this forces us to ask why was she going through this effacement in her life; is it only because of her own self or is there something more to it like the social and marital bonds, and was she happy in her married life, or her husband dominated her in such a way that is became practically impossible for her to live as an independent individual. Saying that it was only her own identity crisis would actually make us neglect all these possibilities of her monstrous JOY. The point that is very much evident with the close reading of the text is that, Louise Mallard is a subject to the masculine discourse of the story. She is introduced as Mrs Mallard and referred to as she for most of the narrative, only once is she called by her own name and that too by her sister, Josephine. As she sits in her room and drinks the very elixir of life, she experiences a new life coming into her, and she realizes that she has now no one who would control her. She was not ouch upset cause of her husbands death but she was actually looking forward to what lies ahead of her. All this shows that she is defined as a selfless woman who is attached or rather affiliated to Presently Mallard as his wife, someone who does not have her own social status and who surely lacks self identity. This feminist reading of the text shows to us the reasons of her facing self effacement in her married life and hence her need for self assertion. It can also be argued that Louise lack of self was just her own issue and the social norms or her marital life did not play a role in it. N only happen when she knows that her identity is at stake because she must have had experienced individuality before her marriage, this probably means that she was satisfied with herself before her marriage and she knew what it is be like an independent woman, but after her marriage this disappeared and she lost the control of herself. Also the whole idea that she starts her self-asse rtion and the possession of herself only after the death of her husband tells us that she was in a way not satisfied with her marriage life and the whole crisis of her lack of identity is because of her husband and her marred life. It very clearly shows us that Presently death gives her a glimpse of a new life that she was always looking for also gives us a reason to think that she was not being able to be herself in the discourse of her married life. We are thus getting closer to the view that the sexual politics of her husband played a dominant role Louses self assertion, but to say that she was facing self crisis only because of her household would be wrong to say. That would suggest that Louise was having a bad married life and that Mr Mallard was not a loving husband. The story in fact states the opposite, it clearly says that Mr Mallard was a gentle and kind husband who loved her truly and it also says that even she loved him. It again forces us to ask the question that if her married life is so perfect then why she feels Joy after the death of her husband. Thus the whole issue of identity crisis becomes problematic because it is not only because of her own self but it is also related with her familial bounds. Maybe Chopin is suggesting that all marriages, even the kindest ones, are inherently oppressive. Louise, who readily admits that her husband was kind and loving, nonetheless feels Joy when she lives that he has died, probably because she was oppressed by her husband. We can thus see that the sexual politics plays an important role in Louses experience of the monstrous JOY, but there lies an internal irony in the text, from her emotions to her self-assertion, the reasons are ambiguous. But it would be incorrect to say that her identity crisis is only because of herself. The self assertion and the urge to be independent is intermingled with the sexual politics that she faced in her marriage life, because had they been separate, she would not wait for her husbands death to assert herself. Had Mr Mallard been an understanding husband, he would have understood that she is an independent woman who needs not to be controlled by anyone else and hence she would be feeling Joy after his death. Thus, we can see that Louise Mallard sufferings and the need for self assertion was not only because of her identity crisis but also because of the gender politics that she was facing in her married life. Chopin makes her an independent woman who was oppressed by the social bonds and wanted to break free from them. Louise comes out to be a self searching woman who wants to find her individuality, which her married life is meow not allowing her to do. No doubt she was in search of a self, and she wanted to be independent but that doesnt completely means that she was dissatisfied with her married life. She wanted to be known Louise, an independent woman, and not as someones wife and that is probably the reason why she felt that she had a possession of herself after her husbands death, and not because of her bad marriage life. Hence, the reason why she was experiencing happiness after the death of her husband is mainly that she would be able to be herself finally, that she

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The KPCs Management Style

Introduction According to Christiansen (2003), effective management of organizations forms a basis for successful achievement of the set goals and objectives. Certainly, managers in these organizations are entrusted with various roles to enhance coherent implementation of the organizations’ development projects.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The KPC’s Management Style specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As evidenced by Finch (2010), the roles of a manager are categorized into interpersonal, informational and decisional roles. Each of these categories has specific roles expected in managers to enhance coherent management of various processes within the organizations they manage. This paper discusses the roles of managers in organizations, with respect to the KPC’s management style. In the interpersonal category, managers in social organizations should act as figureheads in such organizations. I n this case, managers should be able to perform various custom tasks of both legal and social categories. As suggested by Christiansen (2003), manager should able ensure the installation of law and order in the organization’s activities. As it was observed in KPC agency, its legal incompatibility posed many problems in its effective management of its various operations. Being incompatible with Higher Petroleum Council and the Ministry of Oil laws, KPC agency was unable to manage various strategic activities. Particularly, Leistner (2010) considers efficiency of managers as being facilitated by their compliance to the existing regulations and social norms within their organization. In the informational category, managers are held responsible for receiving and transmitting information within their organizations. More specifically, Finch (2010) considers the role of a manager in an organization as being to link the external environment to the internal organization in terms of in formation. In this case, all policies or actions required in the organization should be coordinated by the manager. More specifically Christiansen (2003) considers the manager as an information expert for his/her organization. As it was observed in KPC’s case, the managers seemed uninformed and avoiding to take responsibilities of linking the company to the external environment. As a result, no significant development plans were made within the government agency, resulting into its high inefficiency, as the organization remained isolated from the external environment largely. In the decisional category, managers are required to be entrepreneurial by being able to allocate and supervise resources utilization efficiently. This forms an important part of managers’ role, as it entails making of decisions for strategic development of the organizations they manage. In this case the manager should not make narrowed decisions without consulting his or her junior officials.Adve rtising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As it was observed in KPA, the top administrators were avoiding making decisions with fear of being accountable of the outcome of the decisions they make. Further, the administrators in KPC agency were unable to plan for the organization’s utilization of its resources. Particularly, the lack of proper planning in this agency resulted into its losing various opportunities capable of enhancing its prosperity. As Bungay (2010) reports it is the absolute role of a manager in a social organization to lead the entire management fraternity in strategic decision making. Conclusion Generally, managers in social organizations are eligible to supervision of the overall utilization of the organization’s resources. More so, managers should figureheads for the organizations they manage to ensure legal and social issues are effectively addressed i n the organizations. Further, managers should be entrepreneurial in nature to ensure effective allocation of resources through strategic decision making. Marginalized decision making or failure to plan strategically results into inability to achieve the organizations’ overall goals and objectives, as evidenced in the KPC agency. References Bungay, S. (2010). The Art of Action: How Leaders Close the Gaps between Plans,  Gaps and Results. Washington, DC: NB Publishing. Christiansen, J. (2003). Building the Innovative Organization: Management Skills that  Encourage Innovation. New Jersey: Palgrave McMillan. Finch, B. (2010). Effective Management Skills. New York: Wordsworth Publishers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The KPC’s Management Style specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Leistner, F. (2010). Managers at Work: Roles and Responsibilities. Chicago: John Wiley Sons, Inc. This essay on The KPC’s Management Style was written and submitted by user Graysen Floyd to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Founding Brothers Paper essays

Founding Brothers Paper essays Founding Brothers by Joseph J. Ellis Published by Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House, Inc., New York, in 2000 There have been many key and important events in our nations history, and many people who have contributed to the growth and development of this country. Though many have played a significant role in our countrys history, out of all the events and people, one group or generation allowed all that followed to take place, and is one of the most important components in our American history, our Founding Fathers. The novel Founding Brothers discusses the major events and interactions of these Founding Brothers. The most famous duel in American history and the focus of the beginning chapter of the novel was the Hamilton Burr duel. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel after the two had quarreled for some time. Both participants of the duel died in New Jersey in 1804 on July 11th. I found this event interesting not because of its importance of a historical nature, but because it was interesting to think that two very well known men with political careers would duel to the death over a feud. The times were obviously very different back then; to think that if two people in politics today had a duel over a fight of words is outlandish. I found it interesting to see how these men interacted and to see their personalities, as I had never seen them as characters but only historical figures. Another significant event was the dinner that Jefferson hosted invited Hamilton and Madison. The dinner at Jeffersons was to be a place of negotiation between Hamilton and Madison over Hamiltons program, which dealt with the national and states debt. Madison agreed to allow Hamiltons program to pass and got Hamilton to see to getting the nations capital in Virginia. After this dinner Madison reevaluated Hamiltons plan and once again ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Budget Management Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Budget Management Analysis - Research Paper Example Thirdly, the research paper will state the primary stakeholders of the hospital and their views towards redesigning of the facility and its associated budget. In the last section, the research paper will state the risks involved in pursuing the redesigning of the facility and the risks of not redesigning the hospital. Facility redesign According to the studies conducted by Sawyer (2009), facility is the space whereby employees of an organization carry out their respective duties while design refers to the layout or the architecture of the mentioned space. Sawyer (2009) further stated that facility’s design is an integral component of the operations of an organization because it determines the results of the production process and it goes a long way in meeting employees’ needs. Designing of a facility is usually aimed at ensuring that there is smooth flow of information, and work material within an organization’s space to enable operations to proceed smoothly. Saw yer (2009) stated that a good design of a facility is usually able to integrate employees’ needs, work materials, as well as machinery in a single and effective system. The designing and redesigning of a hospital facility usually takes into consideration various factors such as safety within the facility, the ease of movement and communication, space utilization, material handling, and the impact on employees’ satisfaction and morale. ... he estimated budget for redesigning the facility is presented in the table below: Item Estimated cost($) Architecture’s fee 1500 Constructor’s fee 2000 Construction materials 3000 Purchase of new items 4000 Total 10,500 It is assumed that the facility to be redesigned is the general ward that holds patients with less severe medical cases and therefore the facility does not entail numerous complexities. Moreover, the nurses’ lounge is also located in this general ward. The construction fee is only $2000 and it includes the cost of labor. The amount is considerable small because the work involved will be less, as it will just involve a makeover. The hospital will separately purchase the construction materials listed by the constructor in order to avoid an excess or exaggerated budget arising from the inflated prices by the constructor. The materials will include things such as paints, timber, nails, pipes, cables, and cement, among others. Redesigning the facility will also involve putting in place new items that support the new design, and hence the $4000 budget, which will cover for items such as curtains, beddings that match with the new wall paintings. Other items that will be purchased include new computers, furniture, and communication systems that will be installed at the nurses’ lounge. The total budget for the entire project will be $10,500, which is a considerable amount but it is likely to give the hospital good returns on their investment. Management goals that will be supported by the expenditure It is of essence to note that the redesigning of the facility was implemented because of a management decision that was earlier made. Therefore, redesigning of the facility supports certain management goals that also have an impact of the financial

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Paraphrase Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 7

Paraphrase - Essay Example This extends sources of the practitioners’ knowledge to available historical data through existing publications (Hoffmann, Bennett and De Mar, 2010; Akobeng, 2005). Systematic review is also important to knowledge development for new research. Its analytical approach that plays the same role as formal literature review allows researchers to consolidate existing knowledge on a subject and to identify knowledge gaps for possible new studies. The reviews, with this respect, contribute to new research through informing research objectives, research questions, and research hypotheses. In addition, results of systematic reviews identify theories from related research that can be used in proposed or future studies. Effects of the reviews also extend to influence on research methodologies of new studies through elements such as selection of research methods and design, sampling strategy, and data collection strategy and tools. Ability of systematic reviews to identify weaknesses of pr evious studies also offer a basis for corrective measures and therefore helps to resolve such problems like bias in studies (Booth, Rees and Beecroft, 2010). Data extraction is a process by which data is collected from their sources and is organized into desired form for presentation to the audience. Examples of forms in which extracted data can be communicated are tables and graphs that facilitate understanding. Data extraction is a fundamental process in systematic reviews and helps in identification of elements of a research such as a study’s methods and design, sample and population, and applied treatment and mode of application. The process of data extraction is however largely subjective to a researcher’s interest and opinion and therefore susceptible to bias (Cochrane Handbook, 2011; Petticrew & Roberts, 2006). Summary of studies’ findings is important to any form of analysis and

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Euthanasia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 5

Euthanasia - Essay Example This paper analyses, critically, the arguments for and against Euthanasia. In the conclusion, I have given a personal opinion on my view of Euthanasia. The following are the main pros and cons of Euthanasia. One of the main arguments advanced in support of Euthanasia is the argument that Euthanasia is a morally right action because human beings have a right to self-determination, and for that reason, they should be allowed to choose their own fate (ProCon.org, n.d.). The proponents of Euthanasia contend that since human beings have the right to self-determination, denying euthanasia to the terminally sick patients who need and request for it is immoral and a violation of their right to self-determination. In law the issue of self-determination in regard to Euthanasia is a controversial issue, especially in the United States. Various courts in the United States have interpreted this issue differently. The following case demonstrates how the issue of self-determination in the United States constitution is a controversial issue. Year 1975, the 21 year old Karen Ann Quinlan was admitted in a hospital in a comma. The doctors at the hospital later declared Quinlan to be in a persistent vegetative state. After spending five months on a ventilator, Quinlan’s parents requested that the ventilator be removed and that Quinlan be allowed to die peacefully. The doctors at the hospital, however, objected to Quinlan parents’ requests, and this made the parents to bring the matter to a New Jersey Superior Court. In the ruling, to the disappointment of Quinlan’s parents, the New Jersey Superior Court denied the request of Quinlan’s parents. When Quinlan’s parents, however, took the matter to the New Jersey Supreme court, the Supreme Court reversed the ruling of the Superior Court and ruled that Quinlan’s constitutional right to privacy included her right to be removed from the

Friday, November 15, 2019

Tourism Industry In Indonesia Politics Essay

Tourism Industry In Indonesia Politics Essay Unity in Diversity, is the national motto of Indonesia, is a term that strikes deep into the heart of this dynamic and attractive Southeast Asian nation. Few places offer such cultural variety and geographical complexity as Indonesia, and no two journeys here are ever alike. Location, Geography and Climate Indonesia is composed of seventeen thousand islands that stretch over five thousand miles along the equator. The Malay Peninsula and Indochina are situated to the north-west, and the continent of Australia lies due south. Northward lie the Philippines and Micronesia. The worlds largest archipelago, Indonesias constellation of islands straddles the divide between the Asian and Australian continental plates. As a result, the islands offer a stunning variety of topographies and ecologies Mist-shrouded volcanoes and mountains, unexplored rain forests, thousands of miles of beaches, and endless offshore reefs support a dazzling abundance of wildlife, making Indonesia an ideal destination for adventure and eco-travel. The great majority of the countrys constituent islands are of negligible size, but it does holdwholly or in partseveral islands that are enormous. These include Sumatra, Kalimantan (formerly Borneo, and shared with Malaysia), Sulawesi, and Java. The Indonesian state of Irian Jaya occupies the western half of New Guinea, which is the worlds second largest island (behind Greenland). The most populous of the Indonesian islands by far is Java, home to the sprawling capital city of Jakarta. Other notable islands include the exotic, popular resort island of Bali, Lombok, Catholic Flores, and Komodo, home of dragons. http://www.geographia.com/indonesia/indo2.jpg There are two discernible seasons in Indonesia: the dry season, which extends from June to October, and the rainy season, which lasts from November to March. Both are hot. The coastal regions, however, are often cool, and in the mountains the air is often chilly. Overview of the country Indonesia is one of the largest countries in south-east Asia, between the Indian ocean and the pacific ocean which contain mainly mountainous and covered with rain forests, swamps and consists over 13000 islands. Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia. Jakarta, capital of Indonesia and the countrys largest commercial center. Indonesia declared its independence on 17th august 1945 from Japan but Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Susilo Bambang is the president and Muhammad Yusuf kalla is the vice-president of Indonesia. Bahasa is the official language in Indonesia which is modified form of Malay but the most widely spoken language is Javanese. 88% of Indonesians populations are Muslim. It has a very large trading environment, with several countries ranging in products from gas to textiles. 22% of its populations lived below poverty line. Flag of Indonesia:- http://8bahasa-indonesia-ccc.wikispaces.com/file/view/indonesia_flag.jpg/307489752/351227/indonesia_flag.jpg Demographic profile of Indonesia mhtml:file://H:FOLDER1GCRIndonesia%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.mht!http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Indonesia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg/250px-Indonesia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png According to the 2010 national census, the population of Indonesia 237.6 million, with high population growth at 1.9%. 58% of the population lives on java, the worlds most populous island. Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since the 1960s, population is expected to grow to around 265 million by 2020 and 306 million by 2050. There are around 300 native ethnic group in Indonesia, and 742 different languages and dialects. Most of Indonesians are descended from Austronesia- speaking people whose languages can be traced to proto-Austronesia (PAN), which possibly originated in Taiwan. Another major grouping is Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia. The largest ethnic group is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant. The Sudanese, ethnic Malays, and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups. A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities. Society is largely harmonious, although social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence. Chinese Indonesians are an influential ethnic minority comprising 3-4% of the population. Much of the countrys privately owned commerce and wealth is Chinese-Indonesian-controlled, which has contributed to considerable resentment, and even anti-Chinese violence. The official national language is Indonesian, a form of Malay. It is based on the prestige dialect of Malay, that of the Johor-Riau Sultanate, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago, standards of which are the official languages in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. Indonesian is universally taught in schools; consequently it is spoken by nearly every Indonesian. It is the language of business, politics, national media, education, and academia. It was promoted by Indonesian nationalists in the 1920s, and declared the official language under the name Bahasa Indonesia on the proclamation of independence in 1945. Most Indonesians speak at least one of the several hundred local languages and dialects, often as their first language. Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken as the language of the largest ethnic group. On the other hand, Papua has over 270 indigenous Papuan and Austronesia languages, in a region of about 2.7 million people. While religious freedom is stipulated in the Indonesian constitution, the government officially recognizes only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Although it is not an Islamic state, Indonesia is the worlds most populous Muslim-majority nation, with 86.1% of Indonesians being Muslim according to the 2000 census. On 21 May 2011 the Indonesian Sunni-Shia Council (MUHSIN) was established. The council aims to hold gatherings, dialogues and social activities. It was an answer to violence committed in the name of religion. The majority of Muslims in Indonesia are Sunni. 9% of the population was Christian, 3% Hindu, and 2% Buddhist or other. Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese, and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are ethnic Chinese. Though now minority religions, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Islam was first adopted by Indonesians in northern Sumatra in the 13th century, through the influence of traders, and became the countrys dominant religion by the 16th century. Roman Catholicism was brought to Indonesia by early Portuguese colonialists and missionaries, and the Protestant denominations are largely a result of Dutch Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the countrys colonial period. A large proportion of Indonesians-such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians-practice a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion, which draws on local customs and beliefs. ECONOMIC OVERVIEW OF INDONESIA Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play significant roles. The country is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and a member of the G-20 major economies. Indonesias estimated gross domestic product (nominal), as of 2010 was US$706.73 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$3,015, and per capita GDP PPP was US$4,394 (international dollars). June 2011: At World Economic Forum on East Asia, Indonesian president said Indonesia will be in the top ten countries with the strongest economy within the next decade. The Gross domestic product (GDP) is about $1 trillion and the debt ratio to the GDP is 26%.[ The industry sector is the economys largest and accounts for 46.4% of GDP (2010), this is followed by services (37.1%) and agriculture (16.5%). However, since 2010, the service sector has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 48.9% of the total labor force; this has been followed by agriculture (38.3%) and industry (12 .8%).[ Agriculture, however, had been the countrys largest employer for centuries Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, grew an estimated 6.1% and 6.4% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09), introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25%, a small current account surplus, a fiscal deficit below 2%, and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moodys upgraded Indonesias credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among r egions. The government in 2012 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesias insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, labor unrest over wages, and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of rising oil prices. GDP (official exchange rate): $832.9 billion (2011 est.) GDP real growth rate: 6.5% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 39 6.2% (2010 est.) 4.6% (2009 est.) GDP per capita (PPP): $4,700 (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 157 $4,400 (2010 est.) $4,200 (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars GDP composition by sector: Agriculture: 14.7% Industry: 47.2% Services: 38.1% (2011 est.) Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 CURRENCY c OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIES, TRADE AND COMMERCE The industries in Indonesia are classified as follows: Agriculture: With 42.1% of the total labor force engaged in agriculture, Indonesia can be rightly considered an agrarian economy. The sector contributed 14.4% to the countrys GDP in 2009. In 2006, the country yielded food crops worth 213,529,700 million rupiahs, which was 35% more than the 2003 level. Rice and coffee remains the major producer of the country, making it the worlds fourth biggest producer of these products. Textile and Apparel: The textile and apparel manufacturing industry of Indonesia ranks 14th in the world. In 2008, the value added by textiles and clothing manufacturing dropped to 1.2%. Industry was hard hit by the global recession of the late 2000s. Around 155 textile production companies went bankrupt in 2009 due to an increase in the cost of production and enormous inflow of cheap stuff from China Mining: The fall in commodity prices in 2009, due to the global economic downturn, resulted in several major mining companies putting their investment plans on hold. However, the mining industry is expected to reach US$123 billion by 2014, with yearly growth of 10%-11% from 2010 onwards. Increase in international interest can be seen in the Indonesian coal sector, after the significant number of deals that took place in the last quarter of 2009. Tourism: Tourism is among the biggest economy boosters in Indonesia. This is apparent in the fact that 6.45 million visitors came to the country in 2009, despite of hotel bombings in Jakarta. Tourism contributes 3% to the GDP of the country. The tourism growth plan for 2010 aims at 7 million foreign tourists. However, this is much lower than that of its tiny neighbor Singapore, which was visited by 9.5 million people in 2009. Other Industries: Petroleum and natural gas, footwear, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, etc. ECONOMIC SECTORS On 25 January 2011, after talks by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and visiting President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyuno, India and Indonesia had signed business deals worth billions of dollars and set an ambitious target of doubling trade over the next five years. Tourism wise, Indonesia is one of only 14 countries in which tourist visas prior to entry are not required in India. Indian Nationals also are issued tourist visas on arrival in Indonesia. India also has further economic ties with Indonesia through its free trade agreement with ASEAN, of which Indonesia is a member. President of Indonesia Sukarno was the first chief guest at the annual Republic day parade of India. In the year 2011 too, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyuno was the chief guest for the same. In 1998, agriculture accounted for 19.5 percent of Indonesias total GDP, industry for 45.3 percent, and services for 35.2 percent, a quite different scenario than in decades past. For the first 20 years after independence in 1945, the agricultural sector contributed more than 50 percent of the nations GDP from independence. There was little development of industry, and production per capita was no more than it had been when Indonesia was a Dutch colony. From 1965-74 there were few major industrial projects due to the still weak economy and a strategy of import substitution, which created more jobs. In the early 1970s the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised oil prices, greatly increasing Indonesias export income. Indonesia used this windfall, as well as profits from high prices for tropical agricultural products in the 1970s, to build heavy industries, such as steel, and advanced technologies, such as aeronautics. By the 1980s this industrialization process allowed growing industries such as steel, aluminum, and cement production to reduce the dependence of the economy on agriculture. These industries, especially the high-tech ones, met with only mixed success, and none of them generated the significant employment required by such a populous country. Agriculture and natural resources were still important to the economy, and Indonesias economy was vulnerable to frequent changes in the prices of these commodities, as well as of oil and gas. Oil earnings dropped in 1982-83 from US$18.825 billion to US$14.744 billion and kept falling over the next 2 years. Non-oil exports grew but not enough to make up for the fall in earnings. As Indonesias balance of payments became negative, the World Bank pushed Indonesia to open its markets, and beginning in the mid-1980s the government initiated reforms to boost manufactured exports in order to strengthen the economy. These measures included a currency de-valuation to help make exports competitive, export incentives, the relaxation of rules on foreign investment and trade, and an end to some monopolies, such as plastics OVERVIEW OF BUSINESS AND TRADE AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL Indonesia carries exports and imports at an international level as well. Indonesia Exports: Commodities-Oil gas, Plywood, Textiles, Rubber, Electrical appliances, etc. Indonesia Imports: Commodities-Machinery and equipment, Chemicals, Fuels, Foodstuffs, etc. FDI rules in Indonesia allow 100% FDI investment in selected areas of business only. It limits foreign direct investment to 95%, with a minimum of 5% ownership by an Indonesian. It allows FDI investment with certain conditions that stipulates the sectors which are closed to FDI investment. Trade TRADE INVESTMENT COMPLEMENTARITIES India Indonesia bilateral trade is at least two millennia old. In the ancient past, the two nations used to trade in spices, timbers, minerals, precious stones, cotton silk. In present, trade ties have not realized their true potential which can be attributed to the lack of imaginative. Planning as well as ignorance on the part of the business communities of the two countries. Now India and Indonesia are increasingly seen as emerging Asian economies. trade and investment complementary need to be comprehensively explored. As a result of the continued growth of Indias economic transaction with the ASEAN from 1970 onwards, the amount of trade grew in volume. By 1982 the ASEAN countries shared Indias export which had been 2.6 percent in 1970 had risen to 4.2 % .During the same period Indias total imports from the region had risen. PRESENT TRADE RELATIONS OF INDIA AND INDONESIA http://www.ecaii.org/images/stories/header.jpg Today, both the countries maintain cooperative and friendly relations. India and Indonesia are two of the few democracies in Asian region which can be projected as a real democracy. As fellow Asian democracies that share common values, it is natural for both countries to nurture and foster strategic alliance. Indonesia and India are member states of the G-20, the E7 (countries), the Non-aligned Movement, and the United Nations. With an expanding economy and increasingly favorable investment climate, Indonesia stands as a key economic entity in the ASEAN region. Its abundance of natural resources and a flourishing manufacturing sector have ensured a successful relationship with the booming Indian economy in areas of trade and investment. Though trade relations were formalized with the signing of a Trade Agreement in 1978, there was an absence of a forum for periodic talks between the two countries. The bilateral effort was revitalized with the first ever India-Indonesia Joint Commission Meeting (JCM) held in Yogyakarta in September 2003. The meeting resulted in the formation of an India-Indonesia Expert Working group with the primary objective of enhancing and diversifying bilateral trade and investment relations. So far, the JCM has met thrice with the most recent meeting in 2007, producing a comprehensive Plan of Action in areas comprising trade, infrastructure, and investment. This underlines the increasing political support for the bilateral process which would provide the much-needed political impetus to deepen economic relations between the two countries. Indonesia is presently Indias second-largest export market in ASEAN (second only to Singapore). India mainly exports refined petroleum products, oil seeds, chemicals and iron and steel products to Indonesia. On the other hand, it is one of Indonesias largest buyers of crude oil and further, imports its mining, petroleum and paper products. In 2006, Indias exports increased by 33.77 per cent to US$1.407 billion from US$1.052 billion in 2005. Imports on the other hand grew by 17.18 per cent in 2006 to US$3.39 billion from US$2.878 billion the previous year. The two countries intend to work towards a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with an aim to boost bilateral trade to US$10 billion by 2010. In the area of investment, there are more than twenty major Indian manufacturing joint ventures in Indonesia. Majority of these investments were undertaken in the 1970s and 80s mainly in textiles, synthetic fiber and steel industries with India being among the top 5 investors in Indonesia up to 1985. Major Indian companies that established themselves in this phase included, the Lohia Group (Indorama Synthetics), Ispat Group (Indo Ispat), Aditya Birla Group (having four units in textiles and yarns) and Tolaram Group among others. The recent upturn in the Indonesian economy and the accompanying political change has encouraged a greater emphasis on investments in new industries. There has been a distinct shift from basic raw material industries to automobiles, infrastructure, energy, and services. TVS Motors of Chennai has invested US$45 million in a motorcycle plant near Jakarta while Bajaj Auto is converting traditional three wheelers into CNG-powered ones and launched its new two wheeler model Bajaj Pulsar in the Indonesian market in November 2006. Various private entities have also made investments in areas like coal mining, plantations for bio-fuels and extraction of minerals. Along with investments in new industries, new Indian players have started making an entry into the Indonesian market. Companies like the Tata Power Company Limited and Essar Steel Limited are looking to invest in energy and steel along with public sector giants such as the National Aluminum Company Limited (NALCO), National Thermal P ower Corporation (NTPC), and Rail India Technical and Economic Services Limited (RITES). On the other hand, Indonesian investment in India is rather low and ranks 36th in the FDI inflow to India. Though there has been increasing participation by Indonesian groups especially in West Bengal, the stringent regulatory climate in India is perceived as a primary deterrent for Indonesian companies looking to invest in a big way. Limited direct flights between the two countries and restrictive visa requirements by India have further proved to be a hindrance to greater Indonesian participation in India. Recently, the two countries have been at logger heads over differences pertaining to the India-ASEAN FTA. Indonesia has been pushing for greater access of its palm oil exports to India while India wants a reworking of the negative list put forward by Indonesia. Further, at a bilateral level, there are also issues pertaining to the Indian demand for the removal of non-tariff barriers on its exports of meat and processed foods. Though India is one of the largest exporters of halal bovine meat in the world, Indonesia continues to ban Indias bovine meat and milk products on the grounds that India is not free from Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Despite the mentioned issues between the two countries, there is optimism about the potential that exists for greater economic ties. With both countries facing daunting infrastructural and energy challenges, there is tremendous opportunity for investments on both sides. With opportunities and forum for cooperation in place, it is important that economic actors in both countries step up and work towards enhancing economic partnerships. Companies in both countries need to actualize potential synergies for their mutual benefit and ensure that attempts at cooperation are not restricted to inter-governmental meetings and commissions. PESTEL ANALYSIS of Indonesia considering the TOURISM INDUSTRY: Political analysis Indonesia is considered as Republic country. It declared its independence on 17th August 1945 from Japan so 17thAugust is the national holiday. Indonesia is legal rules and regulations are  based on Roman-Dutch law. Their  constitution has abrogated by Federal Constitution in 1949and Provisional Constitution abrogated in 1950 which restored on 5 July 1959. Political stability: In Indonesia after every five year election is being contested for president and vice president post by direct vote of the citizenry. Last time it was held on 8 July 2009 (next to  be held in July 2014) Susilo Bambang has elected as president and Muhammad Yusuf Kalla is the Vice-President. Similarly, Cabinet also appointed by the president. So for next 5 years there are more chances of stability of the government.   Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the central government. Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998, Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. The president of Indonesia is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who is not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice president. The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. The highest representative body at national level is the Peoples Consultative Assembly (MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalizing broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president. The MPR comprises two houses; the Peoples Representative Council (DPR), with 560 members, and the Regional Representative Council (DPD), with 132 members. The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation. Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased the DPRs role in national governance. The DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management. Most civil disputes appear before a State Court (Pengadilan Negeri); appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi). The Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) is the countrys highest court, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; a State Administrative Court (Pengadilan Tata Negara) to hear administrative law cases against the government; a Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and a Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) to deal with codified Sharia Law cases Political scenario will play a pivotal role in defining the flourishing of tourism in Indonesia. If there are less political conflicts then tourists all over the world will feel safe in travelling. Even after the starting of the business in Indonesia it becomes a duty to maintain the safety and health of the travelers especially those travelling through road and rail. . ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play significant roles. The country is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and a member of the economies. Indonesias estimated gross domestic product (nominal), as of 2010 was US$706.73 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$3,015, and per capita GDP PPP was US$4,394 (international dollars).June 2011: At World Economic Forum on East Asia, Indonesian president said Indonesia will be in the top ten countries with the strongest economy within the next decade. The Gross domestic product (GDP) is about $1 trillion and the debt ratio to the GDP is 26%.[ The industry sector is the economys largest and accounts for 46.4% of GDP (2010), this is followed by services (37.1%) and agriculture (16.5%). However, since 2010, the service sector has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 48.9% of the total labor force, this has been followed by agriculture (38.3%) and industry (12.8%).Agricul ture, however, had been the countrys largest employer for centuries. According to World Trade Organization data, Indonesia was the 27th biggest exporting country in the world in 2010, moving up three places from a year before. Indonesias main export markets (2009) are Japan (17.28%), Singapore (11.29%), the United States (10.81%), and China (7.62%). The major suppliers of imports to Indonesia are Singapore (24.96%), China (12.52%), and Japan (8.92%). In 2005, Indonesia ran a trade surplus with export revenues of US$83.64 billion and import expenditure of US$62.02 billion. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesias major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs. And the countrys major export commodities include oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, rubber, and textiles. Prime lending rate: If we talk about their commercial Bank prime lending interest rate it is quiet decent which is 6.41% and their Central bank discount rate is 10.83%. (CIA, 2009)   Business or individual tax system: Tax system has various rules and categories for example on first 25,000,000 income rate of tax is 10% then on next 25,000,000 it is 15% and on next 50,000,000 it is 30%. In the same way Income Tax on interest from Indonesian banks is fixed at a final 15% for both companies and individuals SOCIO-CULTURAL ANALYSIS Indonesia has about 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as batik, ikat, ulos and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural influences have been significant. Sports in Indonesia are generally male-orientated and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling. The most popular sports are badminton and football. Indonesian players have won the Thomas Cup (the world team championship of mens badminton) thirteen of the twenty-six times that it has been held since 1949, as well as numerous Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992. Its women have won the Uber Cup, the female equivalent of the Thomas Cup, twice, in 1994 and 1996. Liga Indonesia is the countrys premier football club league. Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as, caci in Flores, and pasola in Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art. Indonesian cuisine varies by region and is based on Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents. Rice is the main staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Indonesian traditional music includes gamelan and keroncong. The Indonesian film industrys popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia, although it declined significantly in the early 1990s. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased. The oldest evidence of writing in Indonesia is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli, who criticized treatment of the Indonesians under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Muhammad Yamin and Hamka, who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians; and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesias most famous novelist. Many of Indonesias peoples have strongly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suhartos rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media. The TV market includes ten national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs. At a reported 25 million users in 2008, Internet usage was estimated at 12.5% in September 2009.More than 30 million cell phones are sold in Indonesia each year, and 27 percent of them are local brands. This has formed the lifestyle of the people in Indonesia. While starting a tourism business in Indonesia the attractions of the place need to be identified first. Tourists all over the world